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Virgin birth found in wild vertebrates
Snake
First time "evolutionary novelty" found in wild animals

Researchers in the US have found a form of virgin birth in wild vertebrates for the first time, after genetically analysing pregnant females from two snake species.

They found that North American pit vipers reproduced without a male in a phenomenon called facultative parthenogenesis, previously only found in captive species, and scientists say the findings could change our understanding of animal reproduction and vertebrate evolution.

Thought to be extremely rare for normally sexual species, asexual reproduction was first identified in domestic chickens and, in recent years, reported in a few snake, shark, lizard and bird species.

However, all such "virgin births" have occurred in captivity to females kept away from males, and have in general been considered "evolutionary novelties."

Professor Warren Booth, from the University of Tulsa, Oklahoma, worked with a team to investigate virgin births in copperhead and cottonmouth female pit-vipers, where males were present.

Professor Booth, lead author of the paper published in the Royal Society's Biological Letters, said of the: "I think the frequency is what really shocked us. That's between 2.5 and 5% of litters produced in these populations may be resulting from parthenogenesis."

He added: "That's quite remarkable for something that has been considered an evolutionary novelty."

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News Shorts
Avian flu confirmed in Washington

The US Department of Agriculture's Animal Plant Health Inspection Service has confirmed the presence of avian influenza in wild birds in Whatcom Country, Washington.

Two separate virus strains were identified: HPAI H5NZ in northern pintail ducks and HPAI H5N8 in captive Gyrfalcons that were fed-hunter-killed wild birds.

The US Department of Agriculture say that neither virus has been found anywhere in the US and no human cases with these viruses have been detected. There is no immediate public health concern with either of these avian flu viruses.